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Q61. - (Topic 3)
Which parameter or parameters are used to calculate OSPF cost in Cisco routers?
B. Bandwidth and Delay
C. Bandwidth, Delay, and MTU
D. Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load
The well-known formula to calculate OSPF cost is Cost = 108/ Bandwidth
Q62. - (Topic 7)
Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement describes the effect of this configuration?
A. The VLAN 10 VTP configuration is displayed.
B. VLAN 10 spanning-tree output is displayed.
C. The VLAN 10 configuration is saved when the router exits VLAN configuration mode.
D. VLAN 10 is added to the VLAN database.
Q63. - (Topic 1)
Which two characteristics describe the access layer of the hierarchical network design model? (Choose two.)
A. layer 3 support
B. port security
C. redundant components
Access layer The main purpose of the access layer is to provide direct connection to devices on the network and controlling which devices are allowed to communicate over it. The access layer interfaces with end devices, such as PCs, printers, and IP phones, to provide access to the rest of the network. The access layer can include routers, switches, bridges, hubs, and wireless access points (AP).
Switch features in the Access layer:
Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Quality of Service (QoS)
References: http://www.ciscopath.com/content/61/ http://www.mcmcse.com/cisco/guides/hierarchical_model.shtml
Topic 2, LAN Switching Technologies
Q64. - (Topic 3)
Which two of these functions do routers perform on packets? (Choose two.)
A. Examine the Layer 2 headers of inbound packets and use that information to determine the next hops for the packets
B. Update the Layer 2 headers of outbound packets with the MAC addresses of the next hops
C. Examine the Layer 3 headers of inbound packets and use that information to determine the next hops for the packets
D. Examine the Layer 3 headers of inbound packets and use that information to determine the complete paths along which the packets will be routed to their ultimate destinations
E. Update the Layer 3 headers of outbound packets so that the packets are properly directed to valid next hops
F. Update the Layer 3 headers of outbound packets so that the packets are properly directed to their ultimate destinations
This is the basic function of the router to receive incoming packets and then forward them to their required destination. This is done by reading layer 3 headers of inbound packets and update the info to layer 2 for further hopping.
Q65. - (Topic 5)
The following commands are entered on the router:
Burbank(config)# enable secret fortress
Burbank(config)# line con 0
Burbank(config-line)# password n0way1n
Burbank(config)# service password-encryption
What is the purpose of the last command entered?
A. to require the user to enter an encrypted password during the login process
B. to prevent the vty, console, and enable passwords from being displayed in plain text in the configuration files
C. to encrypt the enable secret password
D. to provide login encryption services between hosts attached to the router
Certain types of passwords, such as Line passwords, by default appear in clear text in the configuration file. You can use the service password-encryption command to make them more secure. Once this command is entered, each password configured is automatically encrypted and thus rendered illegible inside the configuration file (much as the Enable/Enable Secret passwords are). Securing Line passwords is doubly important in networks on which TFTP servers are used, because TFTP backup entails routinely moving config files across networks—and config files, of course, contain Line passwords.
Q66. - (Topic 1)
Which transport layer protocol provides best-effort delivery service with no acknowledgment receipt required?
UDP provides a connectionless datagram service that offers best-effort delivery, which means that UDP does not guarantee delivery or verify sequencing for any datagrams. A source host that needs reliable communication must use either TCP or a program that provides its own sequencing and acknowledgment services.
Q67. - (Topic 7)
Which statement about native VLAN traffic is true?
A. Cisco Discovery Protocol traffic travels on the native VLAN by default
B. Traffic on the native VLAN is tagged with 1 by default
C. Control plane traffic is blocked on the native VLAN.
D. The native VLAN is typically disabled for security reasons
Q68. - (Topic 7)
Which entity assigns IPv6 addresses to end users?
Q69. - (Topic 3)
Which two of these statements are true of IPv6 address representation? (Choose two.)
A. There are four types of IPv6 addresses: unicast, multicast, anycast, and broadcast.
B. A single interface may be assigned multiple IPv6 addresses of any type.
C. Every IPv6 interface contains at least one loopback address.
D. The first 64 bits represent the dynamically created interface ID.
E. Leading zeros in an IPv6 16 bit hexadecimal field are mandatory.
A single interface may be assigned multiple addresses of any type (unicast, anycast,
Every IPv6-enabled interface must contain at least one loopback and one link-local
Optionally, every interface can have multiple unique local and global addresses.
IPv6 host addresses can be assigned in multiple ways:
When IPv6 is used over Ethernet networks, the Ethernet MAC address can be used to
generate the 64-bit interface ID for the host. This is called the EUI-64 address.
Since MAC addresses use 48 bits, additional bits must be inserted to fill the 64 bits
Q70. - (Topic 7)
Which technology supports the stateless assignment of IPv6 addresses?
Explanation: DHCPv6 Technology Overview IPv6 Internet Address Assignment Overview
IPv6 has been developed with Internet Address assignment dynamics in mind. Being aware that IPv6 Internet addresses are 128 bits in length and written in hexadecimals makes automation of address-assignment an important aspect within network design. These attributes make it inconvenient for a user to manually assign IPv6 addresses, as the format is not naturally intuitive to the human eye. To facilitate address assignment with little or no human intervention, several methods and technologies have been developed to automate the process of address and configuration parameter assignment to IPv6 hosts. The various IPv6 address assignment methods are as follows:
Manual Assignment An IPv6 address can be statically configured by a human operator. However, manual assignment is quite open to errors and operational overhead due to the 128 bit length and hexadecimal attributes of the addresses, although for router interfaces and static network elements and resources this can be an appropriate solution.
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (RFC2462) Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) is one of the most convenient methods to assign Internet addresses to IPv6 nodes. This method does not require any human intervention at all from an IPv6 user. If one wants to use IPv6 SLAAC on an IPv6 node, it is important that this IPv6 node is connected to a network with at least one IPv6 router connected. This router is configured by the network administrator and sends out Router Advertisement announcements onto the link. These announcements can allow the on-link connected IPv6 nodes to configure themselves with IPv6 address and routing parameters, as specified in RFC2462, without further human intervention.
Stateful DHCPv6 The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) has been standardized by the IETF through RFC3315. DHCPv6 enables DHCP servers to pass configuration parameters,
such as IPv6 network addresses, to IPv6 nodes. It offers the capability of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration flexibility. This protocol is a stateful counterpart to "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration" (RFC 2462), and can be used separately, or in addition to the stateless autoconfiguration to obtain configuration parameters.
DHCPv6-PD DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (DHCPv6-PD) is an extension to DHCPv6, and is specified in RFC3633. Classical DHCPv6 is typically focused upon parameter assignment from a DHCPv6 server to an IPv6 host running a DHCPv6 protocol stack. A practical example would be the stateful address assignment of "2001:db8::1" from a DHCPv6 server to a DHCPv6 client. DHCPv6-PD however is aimed at assigning complete subnets and other network and interface parameters from a DHCPv6-PD server to a DHCPv6-PD client. This means that instead of a single address assignment, DHCPv6-PD will assign a set of IPv6 "subnets". An example could be the assignment of "2001:db8::/60" from a DHCPv6-PD server to a DHCPv6-PD client. This will allow the DHCPv6-PD client (often a CPE device) to segment the received address IPv6 address space, and assign it dynamically to its IPv6 enabled.interfaces.
Stateless DHCPv6 Stateless DHCPv6 is a combination of "stateless Address Autoconfiguration" and "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6" and is specified by RFC3736. When using stateless-DHCPv6, a device will use Stateless Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC) to assign one or more IPv6 addresses to an interface, while it utilizes DHCPv6 to receive "additional parameters" which may not be available through SLAAC. For example, additional parameters could include information such as DNS or NTP server addresses, and are provided in a stateless manner by DHCPv6. Using stateless DHCPv6 means that the DHCPv6 server does not need to keep track of any state of assigned IPv6 addresses, and there is no need for state refreshment as result. On network media supporting a large number of hosts associated to a single DHCPv6 server, this could mean a significant reduction in DHCPv6 messages due to the reduced need for address state refreshments. From Cisco IOS 12.4(15)T onwards the client can also receive timing information, in addition to the "additional parameters" through DHCPv6. This timing information provides an indication to a host when it should refresh its DHCPv6 configuration data. This behavior (RFC4242) is particularly useful in unstable environments where changes are likely to occur.