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A Human Resources director at a company reported that a laptop containing employee payroll data was lost on the train. Which action should the company take IMMEDIATELY?

  • A. Report the theft to law enforcement
  • B. Wipe the hard drive remotely
  • C. Report the theft to the senior management
  • D. Perform a multi-factor risk analysis

Answer: D

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
As the Director of data protection for Consolidated Records Corporation, you are justifiably pleased with your accomplishments so far. Your hiring was precipitated by warnings from regulatory agencies following a series of relatively minor data breaches that could easily have been worse. However, you have not had a reportable incident for the three years that you have been with the company. In fact, you consider your program a model that others in the data storage industry may note in their own program development.
You started the program at Consolidated from a jumbled mix of policies and procedures and worked toward coherence across departments and throughout operations. You were aided along the way by the program's sponsor, the vice president of operations, as well as by a Privacy Team that started from a clear understanding of the need for change.
Initially, your work was greeted with little confidence or enthusiasm by the company's "old guard" among both the executive team and frontline personnel working with data and interfacing with clients. Through the use of metrics that showed the costs not only of the breaches that had occurred, but also projections of the costs that easily could occur given the current state of operations, you soon had the leaders and key decision-makers largely on your side. Many of the other employees were more resistant, but face-to-face meetings with each department and the development of a baseline privacy training program achieved sufficient "buy-in" to begin putting the proper procedures into place.
Now, privacy protection is an accepted component of all current operations involving personal or protected data and must be part of the end product of any process of technological development. While your approach is not systematic, it is fairly effective.
You are left contemplating:
What must be done to maintain the program and develop it beyond just a data breach prevention program? How can you build on your success?
What are the next action steps?
What process could most effectively be used to add privacy protections to a new, comprehensive program being developed at Consolidated?

  • A. Privacy by Design.
  • B. Privacy Step Assessment.
  • C. Information Security Planning.
  • D. Innovation Privacy Standards.

Answer: C

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
Amira is thrilled about the sudden expansion of NatGen. As the joint Chief Executive Officer (CEO) with her long-time business partner Sadie, Amira has watched the company grow into a major competitor in the green energy market. The current line of products includes wind turbines, solar energy panels, and equipment for geothermal systems. A talented team of developers means that NatGen's line of products will only continue to grow.
With the expansion, Amira and Sadie have received advice from new senior staff members brought on to help manage the company's growth. One recent suggestion has been to combine the legal and security functions of the company to ensure observance of privacy laws and the company's own privacy policy. This sounds overly complicated to Amira, who wants departments to be able to use, collect, store, and dispose of customer data in ways that will best suit their needs. She does not want administrative oversight and complex structuring to get in the way of people doing innovative work.
Sadie has a similar outlook. The new Chief Information Officer (CIO) has proposed what Sadie believes is an unnecessarily long timetable for designing a new privacy program. She has assured him that NatGen will use the best possible equipment for electronic storage of customer and employee data. She simply needs a list of equipment and an estimate of its cost. But the CIO insists that many issues are necessary to consider before the company gets to that stage.
Regardless, Sadie and Amira insist on giving employees space to do their jobs. Both CEOs want to entrust the monitoring of employee policy compliance to low-level managers. Amira and Sadie believe these managers can adjust the company privacy policy according to what works best for their particular departments. NatGen's CEOs know that flexible interpretations of the privacy policy in the name of promoting green energy would be highly unlikely to raise any concerns with their customer base, as long as the data is always used in course of normal business activities.
Perhaps what has been most perplexing to Sadie and Amira has been the CIO's recommendation to institute a privacy compliance hotline. Sadie and Amira have relented on this point, but they hope to compromise by allowing employees to take turns handling reports of privacy policy violations. The implementation will be easy because the employees need no special preparation. They will simply have to document any concerns they hear.
Sadie and Amira are aware that it will be challenging to stay true to their principles and guard against corporate culture strangling creativity and employee morale. They hope that all senior staff will see the benefit of trying a unique approach.
What is the most likely reason the Chief Information Officer (CIO) believes that generating a list of needed IT equipment is NOT adequate?

  • A. The company needs to have policies and procedures in place to guide the purchasing decisions.
  • B. The privacy notice for customers and the Business Continuity Plan (BCP) still need to be reviewed.
  • C. Staff members across departments need time to review technical information concerning any new databases.
  • D. Senior staff members need to first commit to adopting a minimum number of Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs).

Answer: A

What is the key factor that lays the foundation for all other elements of a privacy program?

  • A. The applicable privacy regulations
  • B. The structure of a privacy team
  • C. A privacy mission statement
  • D. A responsible internal stakeholder

Answer: A

In a sample metric template, what does “target” mean?

  • A. The suggested volume of data to collect
  • B. The percentage of completion
  • C. The threshold for a satisfactory rating
  • D. The frequency at which the data is sampled

Answer: A

When implementing Privacy by Design (PbD), what would NOT be a key consideration?

  • A. Collection limitation.
  • B. Data minimization.
  • C. Limitations on liability.
  • D. Purpose specification.

Answer: C

What are you doing if you succumb to "overgeneralization" when analyzing data from metrics?

  • A. Using data that is too broad to capture specific meanings.
  • B. Possessing too many types of data to perform a valid analysis.
  • C. Using limited data in an attempt to support broad conclusions.
  • D. Trying to use several measurements to gauge one aspect of a program.

Answer: A

An organization's privacy officer was just notified by the benefits manager that she accidentally sent out the retirement enrollment report of all employees to a wrong vendor.
Which of the following actions should the privacy officer take first?

  • A. Perform a risk of harm analysis.
  • B. Report the incident to law enforcement.
  • C. Contact the recipient to delete the email.
  • D. Send firm-wide email notification to employees.

Answer: A

Which of the following is NOT typically a function of a Privacy Officer?

  • A. Managing an organization's information security infrastructure.
  • B. Serving as an interdepartmental liaison for privacy concerns.
  • C. Monitoring an organization's compliance with privacy laws.
  • D. Responding to information access requests from the public.

Answer: D

Which of the following is TRUE about the Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) process as required under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)?

  • A. The DPIA result must be reported to the corresponding supervisory authority.
  • B. The DPIA report must be published to demonstrate the transparency of the data processing.
  • C. The DPIA must include a description of the proposed processing operation and its purpose.
  • D. The DPIA is required if the processing activity entails risk to the rights and freedoms of an EU individual.

Answer: D

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
Martin Briseño is the director of human resources at the Canyon City location of the U.S. hotel chain Pacific Suites. In 1998, Briseño decided to change the hotel’s on-the-job mentoring model to a standardized training program for employees who were progressing from line positions into supervisory positions. He developed a curriculum comprising a series of lessons, scenarios, and assessments, which was delivered in-person to small groups. Interest in the training increased, leading Briseño to work with corporate HR specialists and software engineers to offer the program in an online format. The online program saved the cost of a trainer and allowed participants to work through the material at their own pace.
Upon hearing about the success of Briseño’s program, Pacific Suites corporate Vice President Maryanne Silva-Hayes expanded the training and offered it company-wide. Employees who completed the program received certification as a Pacific Suites Hospitality Supervisor. By 2001, the program had grown to provide
industry-wide training. Personnel at hotels across the country could sign up and pay to take the course online. As the program became increasingly profitable, Pacific Suites developed an offshoot business, Pacific Hospitality Training (PHT). The sole focus of PHT was developing and marketing a variety of online courses and course progressions providing a number of professional certifications in the hospitality industry.
By setting up a user account with PHT, course participants could access an information library, sign up for courses, and take end-of-course certification tests. When a user opened a new account, all information was saved by default, including the user’s name, date of birth, contact information, credit card information, employer, and job title. The registration page offered an opt-out choice that users could click to not have their credit card numbers saved. Once a user name and password were established, users could return to check their course status, review and reprint their certifications, and sign up and pay for new courses. Between 2002 and 2008, PHT issued more than 700,000 professional certifications.
PHT’s profits declined in 2009 and 2010, the victim of industry downsizing and increased competition from e- learning providers. By 2011, Pacific Suites was out of the online certification business and PHT was dissolved. The training program’s systems and records remained in Pacific Suites’ digital archives, un-accessed and unused. Briseño and Silva-Hayes moved on to work for other companies, and there was no plan for handling the archived data after the program ended. After PHT was dissolved, Pacific Suites executives turned their attention to crucial day-to-day operations. They planned to deal with the PHT materials once resources allowed.
In 2012, the Pacific Suites computer network was hacked. Malware installed on the online reservation system exposed the credit card information of hundreds of hotel guests. While targeting the financial data on the reservation site, hackers also discovered the archived training course data and registration accounts of Pacific Hospitality Training’s customers. The result of the hack was the exfiltration of the credit card numbers of recent hotel guests and the exfiltration of the PHT database with all its contents.
A Pacific Suites systems analyst discovered the information security breach in a routine scan of activity reports. Pacific Suites quickly notified credit card companies and recent hotel guests of the breach, attempting to prevent serious harm. Technical security engineers faced a challenge in dealing with the PHT data.
PHT course administrators and the IT engineers did not have a system for tracking, cataloguing, and storing information. Pacific Suites has procedures in place for data access and storage, but those procedures were not implemented when PHT was formed. When the PHT database was acquired by Pacific Suites, it had no owner or oversight. By the time technical security engineers determined what private information was compromised, at least 8,000 credit card holders were potential victims of fraudulent activity.
What must Pacific Suite’s primary focus be as it manages this security breach?

  • A. Minimizing the amount of harm to the affected individuals
  • B. Investigating the cause and assigning responsibility
  • C. Determining whether the affected individuals should be notified
  • D. Maintaining operations and preventing publicity

Answer: A

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
Edufox has hosted an annual convention of users of its famous e-learning software platform, and over time, it has become a grand event. It fills one of the large downtown conference hotels and overflows into the others, with several thousand attendees enjoying three days of presentations, panel discussions and networking. The convention is the centerpiece of the company's product rollout schedule and a great training opportunity for current users. The sales force also encourages prospective clients to attend to get a better sense of the ways in which the system can be customized to meet diverse needs and understand that when they buy into this system, they are joining a community that feels like family.
This year's conference is only three weeks away, and you have just heard news of a new initiative supporting it: a smartphone app for attendees. The app will support late registration, highlight the featured presentations and provide a mobile version of the conference program. It also links to a restaurant reservation system with the best cuisine in the areas featured. "It's going to be great," the developer, Deidre Hoffman, tells you, "if, that is, we actually get it working!" She laughs nervously but explains that because of the tight time frame she'd been given to build the app, she outsourced the job to a local firm. "It's just three young people," she says, "but they do great work." She describes some of the other apps they have built. When asked how they were selected for this job, Deidre shrugs. "They do good work, so I chose them."
Deidre is a terrific employee with a strong track record. That's why she's been charged to deliver this rushed project. You're sure she has the best interests of the company at heart, and you don't doubt that she's under pressure to meet a deadline that cannot be pushed back. However, you have concerns about the app's handling of personal data and its security safeguards. Over lunch in the break room, you start to talk to her about it, but she quickly tries to reassure you, "I'm sure with your help we can fix any security issues if we have to, but I doubt there'll be any. These people build apps for a living, and they know what they're doing. You worry too much, but that's why you're so good at your job!"
You see evidence that company employees routinely circumvent the privacy officer in developing new initiatives.
How can you best draw attention to the scope of this problem?

  • A. Insist upon one-on-one consultation with each person who works around the privacy officer.
  • B. Develop a metric showing the number of initiatives launched without consultation and include it in reports, presentations, and consultation.
  • C. Hold discussions with the department head of anyone who fails to consult with the privacy officer.
  • D. Take your concerns straight to the Chief Executive Officer.

Answer: C

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
As they company’s new chief executive officer, Thomas Goddard wants to be known as a leader in data protection. Goddard recently served as the chief financial officer of, a pioneer in online video
viewing with millions of users around the world. Unfortunately, Hoopy is infamous within privacy protection circles for its ethically Questionable practices, including unauthorized sales of personal data to marketers. Hoopy also was the target of credit card data theft that made headlines around the world, as at least two million credit card numbers were thought to have been pilfered despite the company’s claims that “appropriate” data protection safeguards were in place. The scandal affected the company’s business as competitors were quick to market an increased level of protection while offering similar entertainment and media content. Within three weeks after the scandal broke, Hoopy founder and CEO Maxwell Martin, Goddard’s mentor, was forced to step down.
Goddard, however, seems to have landed on his feet, securing the CEO position at your company, Medialite, which is just emerging from its start-up phase. He sold the company’s board and investors on his vision of Medialite building its brand partly on the basis of industry-leading data protection standards and procedures. He may have been a key part of a lapsed or even rogue organization in matters of privacy but now he claims to be reformed and a true believer in privacy protection. In his first week on the job, he calls you into his office and explains that your primary work responsibility is to bring his vision for privacy to life. But you also detect some reservations. “We want Medialite to have absolutely the highest standards,” he says. “In fact, I want us to be able to say that we are the clear industry leader in privacy and data protection. However, I also need to be a responsible steward of the company’s finances. So, while I want the best solutions across the board, they also need to be cost effective.”
You are told to report back in a week’s time with your recommendations. Charged with this ambiguous mission, you depart the executive suite, already considering your next steps.
What metric can Goddard use to assess whether costs associated with implementing new privacy protections are justified?

  • A. Compliance ratio
  • B. Cost-effective mean
  • C. Return on investment
  • D. Implementation measure

Answer: C

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
It's just what you were afraid of. Without consulting you, the information technology director at your organization launched a new initiative to encourage employees to use personal devices for conducting business. The initiative made purchasing a new, high-specification laptop computer an attractive option, with discounted laptops paid for as a payroll deduction spread over a year of paychecks. The organization is also paying the sales taxes. It's a great deal, and after a month, more than half the organization's employees have signed on and acquired new laptops. Walking through the facility, you see them happily customizing and comparing notes on their new computers, and at the end of the day, most take their laptops with them, potentially carrying personal data to their homes or other unknown locations. It's enough to give you data- protection nightmares, and you've pointed out to the information technology Director and many others in the organization the potential hazards of this new practice, including the inevitability of eventual data loss or theft.
Today you have in your office a representative of the organization's marketing department who shares with you, reluctantly, a story with potentially serious consequences. The night before, straight from work, with laptop in hand, he went to the Bull and Horn Pub to play billiards with his friends. A fine night of sport and socializing began, with the laptop "safely" tucked on a bench, beneath his jacket. Later that night, when it was time to depart, he retrieved the jacket, but the laptop was gone. It was not beneath the bench or on another bench nearby. The waitstaff had not seen it. His friends were not playing a joke on him. After a sleepless night, he confirmed it this morning, stopping by the pub to talk to the cleanup crew. They had not found it. The laptop was missing. Stolen, it seems. He looks at you, embarrassed and upset.
You ask him if the laptop contains any personal data from clients, and, sadly, he nods his head, yes. He believes it contains files on about 100 clients, including names, addresses and governmental identification numbers. He sighs and places his head in his hands in despair.
In order to determine the best course of action, how should this incident most productively be viewed?

  • A. As the accidental loss of personal property containing data that must be restored.
  • B. As a potential compromise of personal information through unauthorized access.
  • C. As an incident that requires the abrupt initiation of a notification campaign.
  • D. As the premeditated theft of company data, until shown otherwise.

Answer: B

Please use the following to answer the next QUESTION:
For 15 years, Albert has worked at Treasure Box – a mail order company in the United States (U.S.) that used to sell decorative candles around the world, but has recently decided to limit its shipments to customers in the 48 contiguous states. Despite his years of experience, Albert is often overlooked for managerial positions. His frustration about not being promoted, coupled with his recent interest in issues of privacy protection, have motivated Albert to be an agent of positive change.
He will soon interview for a newly advertised position, and during the interview, Albert plans on making executives aware of lapses in the company’s privacy program. He feels certain he will be rewarded with a promotion for preventing negative consequences resulting from the company’s outdated policies and procedures.
For example, Albert has learned about the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountans)/CICA (Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants) Privacy Maturity Model (PMM). Albert thinks the model is a useful way to measure Treasure Box’s ability to protect personal data. Albert has noticed that Treasure Box fails to meet the requirements of the highest level of maturity of this model; at his interview, Albert will pledge to assist the company with meeting this level in order to provide customers with the most rigorous security available.
Albert does want to show a positive outlook during his interview. He intends to praise the company’s commitment to the security of customer and employee personal data against external threats. However, Albert worries about the high turnover rate within the company, particularly in the area of direct phone marketing. He sees many unfamiliar faces every day who are hired to do the marketing, and he often hears complaints in the lunch room regarding long hours and low pay, as well as what seems to be flagrant disregard for company procedures.
In addition, Treasure Box has had two recent security incidents. The company has responded to the incidents with internal audits and updates to security safeguards. However, profits still seem to be affected and anecdotal evidence indicates that many people still harbor mistrust. Albert wants to help the company recover. He knows there is at least one incident the public in unaware of, although Albert does not know the details. He believes the company’s insistence on keeping the incident a secret could be a further detriment to its reputation. One further way that Albert wants to help Treasure Box regain its stature is by creating a toll-free number for customers, as well as a more efficient procedure for responding to customer concerns by postal mail.
In addition to his suggestions for improvement, Albert believes that his knowledge of the company’s recent business maneuvers will also impress the interviewers. For example, Albert is aware of the company’s intention to acquire a medical supply company in the coming weeks.
With his forward thinking, Albert hopes to convince the managers who will be interviewing him that he is right for the job.
Based on Albert’s observations, executive leadership should most likely pay closer attention to what?

  • A. Awareness campaigns with confusing information
  • B. Obsolete data processing systems
  • C. Outdated security frameworks
  • D. Potential in-house threats

Answer: C


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