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Q41. What is the proper response for a FIN scan if the port is open?
F. No response
Explanation: Open ports respond to a FIN scan by ignoring the packet in question.
Q42. Buffer X in an Accounting application module for Brownies Inc. can contain 200 characters. The programmer makes an assumption that 200 characters are more than enough. Because there were no proper boundary checks being conducted, Bob decided to insert 400 characters into the 200-character buffer. (Overflows the buffer). Below is the code snippet.
How can you protect/fix the problem of your application as shown above?
A. Because the counter starts with 0, we would stop when the counter is less than 200
B. Because the counter starts with 0, we would stop when the counter is more than 200
C. Add a separate statement to signify that if we have written 200 characters to the buffer, the stack should stop because it can’t hold any more data
D. Add a separate statement to signify that if we have written less than 200 characters to the buffer, the stack should stop because it can’t hold any more data
Explanation: I=199 would be the character number 200. The stack holds exact 200 characters so there is no need to stop before 200.
Q43. One of your team members has asked you to analyze the following SOA record. What is the TTL?
Rutgers.edu.SOA NS1.Rutgers.edu ipad.college.edu (200302028 3600 3600 604800 2400.
Explanation: The SOA includes a timeout value. This value can tell an attacker how long any DNS "poisoning" would last. It is the last set of numbers in the record.
Q44. An attacker has been successfully modifying the purchase price of items purchased at a web site. The security administrators verify the web server and Oracle database have not been compromised directly. They have also verified the IDS logs and found no attacks that could have caused this. What is the mostly likely way the attacker has been able to modify the price?
A. By using SQL injection
B. By using cross site scripting
C. By changing hidden form values in a local copy of the web page
D. There is no way the attacker could do this without directly compromising either the web server or the database
Explanation: Changing hidden form values is possible when a web site is poorly built and is trusting the visitors computer to submit vital data, like the price of a product, to the database.
Q45. Which of the following LM hashes represent a password of less than 8 characters? (Select 2)
Explanation: Notice the last 8 characters are the same
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Q46. There is some dispute between two network administrators at your company. Your boss asks you to come and meet with the administrators to set the record straight. Which of these are true about PKI and encryption?
Select the best answers.
A. PKI provides data with encryption, compression, and restorability.
B. Public-key encryption was invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
C. When it comes to eCommerce, as long as you have authenticity, and authenticity, you do not need encryption.
D. RSA is a type of encryption.
Explanation: PKI provides confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the messages exchanged between these two types of systems. The 3rd party provides the public key and the receiver verifies the message with a combination of the private and public key. Public-key encryption WAS invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. The famous hashing algorithm Diffie-Hellman was named after them. The RSA Algorithm is created by the RSA Security company that also has created other widely used encryption algorithms.
Q47. Let's imagine three companies (A, B and C), all competing in a challenging global environment. Company A and B are working together in developing a product that will generate a major competitive advantage for them. Company A has a secure DNS server while company B has a DNS server vulnerable to spoofing. With a spoofing attack on the DNS server of company B, company C gains access to outgoing e-mails from company B. How do you prevent DNS spoofing? (Select the Best Answer.)
A. Install DNS logger and track vulnerable packets
B. Disable DNS timeouts
C. Install DNS Anti-spoofing
D. Disable DNS Zone Transfer
Explanation: Explantion: Implement DNS Anit-Spoofing measures to prevent DNS Cache Pollution to occur.
Q48. In an attempt to secure his wireless network, Bob implements a VPN to cover the wireless communications. Immediately after the implementation, users begin complaining about how slow the wireless network is. After benchmarking the network’s speed. Bob discovers that throughput has dropped by almost half even though the number of users has remained the same.
Why does this happen in the VPN over wireless implementation?
A. The stronger encryption used by the VPN slows down the network.
B. Using a VPN with wireless doubles the overhead on an access point for all direct client to access point communications.
C. VPNs use larger packets then wireless networks normally do.
D. Using a VPN on wireless automatically enables WEP, which causes additional overhead.
Explanation: By applying VPN the access point will have to recalculate all headers destined for client and from clients twice.
Q49. The GET method should never be used when sensitive data such as credit is being sent to a CGI program. This is because any GET command will appear in the URL and will be logged by any servers. For example, let’s say that you’ve entered your credit card information into a form that uses the GET method. The URL may appear like this:
The GET method appends the credit card number to the URL. This means that anyone with access to a server log will be able to obtain this information.
How would you protect from this type of attack?
A. Replace the GET with POST method when sending data
B. Never include sensitive information in a script
C. Use HTTOS SSLV3 to send the data instead of plain HTTPS
D. Encrypt the data before you send using GET method
Explanation: If the method is "get", the user agent takes the value of action, appends a ? to it, then appends the form data set, encoded using the application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type. The user agent then traverses the link to this URI. If the method is "post" --, the user agent conducts an HTTP post transaction using the value of the action attribute and a message created according to the content type specified by the enctype attribute.
Q50. What port number is used by Kerberos protocol?
Explanation: Kerberos traffic uses UDP/TCP protocol source and destination port 88.
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